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Momwe mungakhazikitsire Encoder ya Broadcast yanu ya Live Live IPTV?

Momwe mungakhazikitsire Encoder ya Broadcast yanu ya Live Live IPTV?

Kukhala wokhoza sakani video pa intaneti ndichinthu chovuta kwambiri kuchita. Pamafunika kumvetsetsa kwabwino kwa magawo angapo ogwira ntchito. Ichi ndichifukwa chake blog yathu ili pano - kuti ikuthandizireni kumvetsetsa machitidwe awa kuti mutha kupanga zisankho zoyenera ikafika nthawi yopanga chofunikira chofalitsa.

Cholinga cha bulogu iyi ndi kukhotetsa kwakukhazikitsa. Makamaka, tikuwunika makonda omwe muyenera kukhazikitsa mu encoder yanu. Koma, choyamba, tiyeni tifotokozere mwachidule zazomwe encoder ili, kwa iwo omwe akufuna kumanga chidziwitso chawo choyamba.

msungwana wovala buluu wokhala ndi kamera

Cholinga cha Encoder Live

Kusakaza kwanyimbo ya digito kumakhala kokhudza kusaka. Kulembera kumakhudzana ndi kutsitsa kwakanema ndi mawonekedwe. Munthawi yaiwisi, makanema apakompyuta amakhala ndi zithunzi zingapo zomwe zimawonetsedwa motsatizana pomwe nyimbo ya zomvera ikuimba kumbuyo.

Komabe, njira iyi yosinthira makanema imagwiritsa ntchito malo ambiri. Miniti imodzi yokha ya kanema yaiwisi kapena yopanda tanthauzo lalitali imatha kugwiritsa ntchito malo ambiri osungira. Mapazi akayamba kukula 30, 60, 90 mphindi kapena kutalika, kukula kwake kumakhala kwakukulu kwambiri kuti kuthana nako.

Njira yothetsera vutoli ndi kuthinana: njira ya masamu yotaya "zosafunikira" zosafunikira. Kusintha kwa makanema kumachepetsa kukula kwamafayilo mwakutulutsa ziwonetsero zamavidiyo omwe sasintha kuchokera pazenera. Mwachitsanzo, ngati ngodya yakanema ili yakuda kwa mphindi 10, zambiri mwa zomwezo zitha kutayidwa ndikusinthidwa ndi mawu ngati, "chititsani kona iyi kukhala yakuda pazithunzi 300 zikubwerazi."

Kutsitsa kwokhala pompopompo kumachepetsa kuchepa, kapena kukula, kwamavidiyo otsitsira kuti zitheke kutumiza izi pa intaneti.

Kutsika kwakukulu kumachepetsa kwambiri kanema, ndikupangitsa kuti iwoneke bwino. Ma "codecs" osiyanasiyana (kapena miyezo yolumikizira / kutsindikiza kanema) adapangidwa zaka zambiri, ndipo akupezeka kuti athane ndi nkhaniyi.

Media-Zosintha Ma Media

Komabe, pali chinthu china pankhani yokhazikika: kusokonekera. Makanema kapena makanema onse osaphika omwe amakhala osakwaniritsidwa pa intaneti. Ma fomati ophatikizira amagwiritsa ntchito zikwangwani zapadera ndi zotengera kuti zitsimikizire kuti kanema akhoza kuulutsa chidutswa chilichonse popanda zofunikira kapena zolakwika. Chifukwa chake, ma encoder samangopopera video, komanso amasintha kukhala mafayilo oyenera kukhamukira. Ndi chidziwitso chofunikira ichi, tili okonzeka kukhazikitsa chosungira kuti tisangalale ndi moyo.

Khazikitsani Encoder Yotsatsira Live

Kukhazikitsa encoder kumatha kukhala kosokoneza, koma mukamvetsetsa zomwe makonda anu akutanthauza mumtsinje wanu, ndizosavuta. Apa, talemba mndandanda wazosankha zambiri zomwe zimapezeka pamapulatifomu osiyanasiyana obisika.

Izi zimatha kusiyanasiyana ndikugwiritsa ntchito, ngati mukukumana ndi zomwe simukumvetsa, bwereraninso ku zomwe zalembedwa pa nsanja yanu. Kapenanso, lembani apa ndemanga ndipo tichita zonse zomwe tingathe kukuthandizani kuthetsa vutoli.

Momwe Mungasankhire Gwero

Chinthu choyamba pakukhazikitsa encoder yamoyo ndikusankha media source. Uwu ukhoza kukhala IP webcam, kulowetsamo HDMI kuchokera ku kamera, kapena ngakhale mafayilo azithunzi omwe ali pakompyuta yanu. Zomvera zimakhala chimodzimodzi maikolofoni (yoyimira kapena ikamangidwa mu kamera yanu) kapena mafayilo amawu.

Ngati mukugwira ntchito pamakamera amakanema ambiri, gwero lanu lingakhale chakudya chimodzi kuchokera ku zida zanu zosinthira. Pakanthawi, nsanja yanu yosungidwa ikhoza kuthandizira kusinthitsa kwayokha - vMix nsanja, mwachitsanzo, kuthandizira kusintha kosintha.

Mwanjira iliyonse, onetsetsani kuti mwasankha mavidiyo oyenerera ndi mavidiyo azomwe mukufuna kufalitsa. Chowopsa chimodzi chopewa pano ndikusankha gwero lolakwika, monga kusankha maikolofoni yolumikizidwa pa laputopu yanu ngati gawo lanu lomvera.

Mavidiyo ena akubwera a Codec

RGB Yoyambira

Kusankha kotsatira kokumbukira ndi chiyani "codec" (kapena chikakamizo) chomwe mungafune kuti encoder yanu ipange ndikuwonetsa. Codec wodziwika kwambiri wokhazikika pamoyo amatchedwa H.264 ndipo imathandizidwa pafupifupi pachida chilichonse chamakono chokhala ndi makanema. Ma codec ena omwe akubwera, omwe amalonjeza kuti achepetse kukula kwa fayilo pomwe akusungidwa bwino, akuphatikizapo H.265 ndi VP10.

Komabe, kumamatira ndi muyezo H.264 ndiye kubetcha kwanu pakadali pano. Kusintha kumodzi komwe mungawone kumatchedwa x264. Iyi ndi njira yokhayo yolembetsa vidiyo ya H.264. Kulemba ndi x264 nthawi zambiri kumagwiritsa ntchito zinthu zochepa za CPU kuposa njira zina, koma mutha kuyesa izi musanayambe.

Chidziwitso pa Mitsinje Yambiri

Dziwani kuti zosintha zambiri zomwe zafotokozedwa pansipa zimagwira ntchito kwa ogwiritsa ntchito ma intaneti osiyanasiyana othamanga. Otsitsira amakono ambiri amasankha kuwulutsa mitsinje ingapo nthawi yomweyo, zomwe zimasanjidwa pamlingo wosiyana (kuchuluka kwa zomwe zimatumizidwa sekondi imodzi). Izi zitha kuperekedwa kwa ogwiritsa ntchito kulumikizana kwapang'onopang'ono, kwapakatikati, komanso mwachangu kuti aliyense apatsidwe zomwe angathe.

Audio Codec

Muyenera kusankha mtundu wa ma codec oti mutumizirenso mukuyenda kwanu. Zokonda kwambiri ndizoyendetsera MP3 ndi AAC, mafayilo amawu omwe pafupifupi chipangizo chilichonse chimatha kuchirikiza. Timalimbikitsa AAC pafupifupi chilichonse monga chikufunikira ndi zida za Apple za Apple.

Mtundu wa Zitsanzo

Makina ena omveka omwe muyenera kusankha ndi "mtundu wa zomvera." Izi zimangotanthauza kuchuluka kwa zoyezera pamphindikati iliyonse panthawi yojambulidwa. Tikupangira kuti muyike zitsanzo kuti zikhale 44100 KHz pamtsinje uliwonse. Uwu ndi muyezo kudutsa zida zambiri zomvetsera ndi kujambula.

Kutsitsa Kanema Kukonzanso

Kusintha kwa mtsinje wanu kukutanthauza kukula (kuyesedwa m'mapikisheni) kwamavidiyo. Makanema ambiri omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito masiku ano ndi awa:

  • 426 x 240 (240p)
  • 640 x 360 (360p, Tanthauzo Lotsika)
  • 854 x 480 (480p, Tanthauzo Losanja, kapena SD)
  • 1280 x 720 (720p HD)
  • 1920 x 1080 (1080p, kapena Full HD)
  • 3840 x 2160 (imadziwika kuti 4K kapena Ultra HD)

Malingaliro omwe mumasankha kanema wanu amatengera zinthu zingapo. Choyamba, zida zanu zonse ziyenera kuthandizira chisankho chanu chachikulu, kuphatikizapo kuthamanga ndi kosungira. Kukweza kwamasamba ambiri kumatenga mphamvu zochulukirapo kuchitira.

Chachiwiri, liwiro lanu pa intaneti liyenera kukhala lokwanira kusankha momwe mwasankhira. Ngakhale kusinthaku sikumalumikizidwa pamlingo wocheperako, makanema azisankho apamwamba amafunikira bandwidth yambiri kuti iwoneke bwino. Si ntchito kutumiza kulumikizidwa kwa makanema a HD ngati bandwidth yanu singagwire bwino mulingowo.

Ndondomeko ya Mavidiyo

Mulingo wa chimango umangotanthauza kuchuluka kwa zithunzi zomwe zimatengedwa pamphindi ndi makamera anu. Izi ndizodziwika bwino ndi mafelemu a 29.97 pa sekondi (amazungulira mpaka fps 30), koma ma fps 25 ndi 24 nawonso ndiofala. Zochitika zina zamasewera ndi makina ena ofalitsa mayendedwe othamanga amasankha kuwulutsa pa fps 60 kuti zochita ziziwoneka zowala kwambiri. Ngati mukukayika, gwiritsitsani ndi 30 fps.

Protocol Live Streaming: HLS, RTMP

Lingaliro lamaupandu apakompyuta

Makanema otsatsira Live amatumizidwa kudzera pama protocol angapo omwe amasintha pakapita nthawi. Kutalika kwambiri komanso kotalika kwa izi kumatchedwa RTMP. RTMP, kapena Real Time Messaging Protocol, ndi mulingo wa Macromedia (Adobe) wotsatsira makanema, ma audio, ndi metadata pa intaneti nthawi yeniyeni. Ma encode ambiri, kuphatikizapo omwe akuchokera ku projekiti ya OBS, Wirecast, vMix, ndi Adobe's Flash Media Live Encoder, amatha kugwiritsa ntchito RTMP.

RTMP ndi njira yosinthira komanso yolimba, koma sikokwanira masiku ano. Ndi chifukwa zimafunikira owonera kuti azigwiritsa ntchito zida zomwe zili ndi Flash Player woyika pa chipangizo chawo. Kuchulukirachulukira, Flash ikupuma pantchito kuti ichitire patsogolo njira zodalirika zoperekera mavidiyo, komanso nsanja zambiri za mafoni - makamaka, iOS pa iPhones ndi iPads - sizigwirizana ndi Flash.

Komabe, ma feed a RTMP akadali njira yokhayo yobweretsera mtsinje kuchokera ku cholowera chanu kupita ku maseva ogawa. Pokhala ndi pulogalamu yolandirira makanema abwino, chakudya chimodzi cha RTMP kuchokera kwa chosunga chanu chimatha kusinthidwa kukhala miyezo ina, yogwirizana kwambiri, monga HLS ndi HDS, pa seva kumapeto.

Apa ku DaCast, timagwiritsa ntchito Akamai's Stream Packaging pa Universal Streaming ntchito iyi. Pachukuta la Akamai limalowetsa mu msewu wa RTMP kuchokera ku chosungira chanu ndipo chimasamutsa zokha ku HLS ndi HDS pafupi ndi nthawi yeniyeni, kukonzekera kutsatsa kwa mtundu uliwonse wa chipangizocho. Izi zimapangitsa kuchepa kwachiwiri 30-45 kwachiwiri kudyetsa.

Mtengo Wamakanema Pakanema

Mwina malo ofunikira kwambiri pokonza makulidwe onse ndi gawo laling'ono. Kuchepa kwake ndi mzere womwe umatsimikiza kuchuluka kwa zomwe kutsatsa kwako kungathe. Chilichonse chomwe mungakhazikitse kuchuluka, kuchuluka kwanu kwa data sikukwera kuposa pamenepo.

Mitengo yocheperako imamenyedwa m'miyeso sekondi imodzi, koma imakonda kupezeka mu Kilobits pa sekondi (8 Kilobits = 1 kilobyte). Ziwerengero zazing'ono zimatsimikiza kuchuluka kwa bandwidth yanu yomwe mumagwiritsa ntchito. Chiwerengero chachikulu cha Kilobits pa sekondi imodzi chimagwiritsa ntchito zambiri. Izi ndizofunikira pazifukwa zingapo zokhudzana ndi kuthamanga kwa intaneti.

Choyamba, kuthamanga kwanu kuyenera kukhala kwachangu komanso kosasunthika kokwanira kuti mukweze kutsitsa pa liwiro lanu panthawi yonse yotsatsa. Nthawi zambiri, timalimbikitsa kuti kuthamanga kwanu kukweze kuthamanga osachepera kawiri pazomwe mukuyembekezera.

Nawa Malangizo wamba mitengo yamavidiyo osiyanasiyana pazosintha makanema osiyanasiyana:

  • Kanema wa 360p: 400 Kbps - 1000 Kbps
  • Vidiyo ya 480p: 500 Kbps - 2 Mbps (1 Mbps = 1000 Kbps)
  • Kanema wa 720p: 1.5 - 4 Mbps
  • Kanema wa 1080p: 3 - 6 Mbps

Kumbukiraninso, kuti zofuna zanu zonse za bandwidth zidzakhala zokwanira mitsinje yanu yonse yowonjezeredwa palimodzi. Chifukwa chake ngati mukusungira mtsinje wa 360p, mtsinje wa 720p, ndi mtsinje wa 1080p, kuphatikiza mawu onse, mutha kukhala mukusanjikiza pafupifupi 12 Mbps of data. Izi zikutanthauza kuti kulumikizidwa kwanu pa intaneti kuyenera kukhala kokhoza kupititsa liwiro la 24 Mbps.

Mlingo wa Bit C C vs. Mulingo wambiri VBR

Funso limodzi ndikugwiritsa ntchito mtengo wokhazikika (CBR) kapena wosintha pang'ono (VBR). Kugwiritsa ntchito VBR kumatanthauza kuti kugwiritsa ntchito kwanu data kumatsika ngati zomwe zikuwonetsedwa pazakanthawi kochepa zilibe zambiri. Mosiyana ndi izi, kugwiritsa ntchito deta kudzakhala kopamwamba ngati pali zochita zambiri pazenera.

Kugwiritsa ntchito CBR kumapangitsa kuti pakhale mtsinje wokhazikika, wodalirika chifukwa VBR imapangitsa kuti pakhale kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwakukulu kwa deta. Komabe, kugwiritsa ntchito VBR kumachepetsa kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwanu kwa bandwidth, komwe kumachepetsa mtengo. Timalimbikitsa kugwiritsa ntchito CBR pokhapokha mutakhala ndi nkhawa yokhudza bandwidth mtengo.

Momwe mungakhalire Malingaliro a Audio Bit

Mlingo wa audio komanso chinthu chomwe muyenera kuchita. Timalimbikitsa izi:

  • Kwa kanema wa 360p: audio ya 64 Kbps, mono
  • Kwa kanema 480p: 128 Kbps, stereo
  • Kwa kanema 720p: 128 Kbps, stereo
  • Pa kanema wa 1080p ndi pamwambapa: 256 Kbps, stereo

"Mono" kapena "stereo" amatanthauza njira zingapo zomvera: imodzi kapena ziwiri. Zosinthazi zitha kutchedwa "njira." Sankhani makonda pazomwe mungakwanitse malinga ndi zomwe tafotokozazi.

Kukula Kwambiri

Kusintha kumeneku kukugwirizana ndi momwe deta ya kanema imasungidwira mphindi zochepa isanayambe kufalitsidwa. Kukula kwakukulu kwa buffer kumatha kukulitsa kuyenda, koma kumatha kukulitsa kuchuluka kwanu kwakanthawi kochepa kuposa momwe mumasankhira.

Ngakhale izi sizingakhudze kuchuluka kwanu konse (ma ma aligorivimu adzabwezera pochepetsa kugwiritsa ntchito data nthawi zina), zitha kuyambitsa mavuto kwa owonera ena. Tikukulimbikitsani kuti muyike buffer kukula kofanana ndi momwe mulili pang'onopang'ono kuti muwonetsetse kuti mukupatsirana mosasunthika komanso popanda mawonekedwe.

Kulumikiza ndi Kanema Kanu Wokhala ndi Kanema

Tsopano popeza mwaphunzira momwe mungasinthire makanema ndi makanema pa kompyuta yanu, gawo lomaliza ndi kulumikizitsa encoder yanu ndi seva yolowetsa. Pa nsanja ya DaCast, mupatsidwa zambiri pazomwe mungapangire mtsinje: "mtsinje wa", "ulalo wa", ulalo wolowera, ndi mawu achinsinsi. Mutha kuyika izi mu encoder yanu kuti mulumikizane ndi maseva a DaCast ndikuyamba kukweza.

Zikhazikiko zina

Mukakhazikitsa encoder yanu, mutha kukumana ndi zosintha zina zingapo. Nayi kufotokoza kwa makonda ena omwe amapezeka mu Adobe Flash Media Live Encoder. Ma encode ena azikhala ndi makonzedwe ofanana.

  • "Makulidwe Olowetsa" ndi "Kukula" amatanthauza makanema omwe akubwera kuchokera ku kamera yanu (makamera), ndi lingaliro lomwe mukufuna kutulutsa ngati mtsinje watali.
  • "FMS URL" ndi ulalo wa seva yanu yotsegulira.
  • "Stream" nthawi zambiri ndimabokosi omwe mumalowetsa dzina lanu.
  • "Sungani fayilo" kumakupatsani mwayi womwewo wosungira kuwulutsa kwanu ku drive yosungira.

Hardware vs. Mapulogalamu apakompyuta

Pali mitundu ingapo ya ma encoder omwe amatha kugawidwa m'magulu awiri: Hardware ndi mapulogalamu. Ma encode a Hardware ndi zida zodzipereka zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito polemba makina amoyo. Ndizachuma, zodalirika, ndipo zimatha kukhala ndi zinthu zazikulu ngati mapulogalamu osakanizika. Omwe akuwatsogolera omwe ali ndi ma encoder a hardware akuphatikizira vMix ndi Teradek. Komabe, izi nthawi zambiri zimakhala zodula kwambiri.

Ma encode mapulogalamu ndi njira zina zazikuluzikulu zotsalira. Ma encode a pulogalamu ya pulogalamuyi amangokhala mapulogalamu ngati ena alionse omwe angaikidwe pa kompyuta kapena pakompyuta ya laputopu. Muyenera kuwonetsetsa kuti kompyuta iyi ndi yamphamvu kuti ithe kugwiritsa ntchito kanema wamtunduwu musanadalire pa nthawi yotsatsa. Monga momwe timanenera nthawi zonse: kuyesa, kuyesa, kuyesa!

Chitsanzo chaulere cha pulogalamu yosunga mapulogalamu ndi cha Adobe Flash Media Live Encoder. Phukusili lamapulogalamuwa limapereka zida zambiri zothandizira kutulutsa ndikuyenda bwino. Chitsanzo china ndi OBS, kapena Open Broadcaster Software. Phukusi ili ndi lamphamvu, lingasinthike, ndipo likhonza kuikidwa pakompyuta iliyonse. Mutha kuphunzira zambiri za OBS ndikutsitsa pulogalamuyi pa tsamba la polojekiti.

Siyani Mumakonda