Antenna yogwira 1 mpaka 20dB, 1-30 MHz

Antenna yogwira 1 mpaka 20dB, 1-30 MHz.WolembaRodney A. KreuterandTony van Roon

"Mukakumana ndi vuto kapena tsoka loyandikana nalo lingakulepheretseni kulembera tinyanga titalitali, mudzapeza kuti tinyanga tating'onoting'ono timakupatsaninso. "Acenti Antenna "yu ndi wotsika mtengo kuti ipangike" ndipo ili ndi 1 mpaka 30Mhz pakati pa 14 ndi 20dB phindu. "
Fkapena olandila pafupipafupi pofikira, phokoso loti "likhale lalitali limathandiziranso kuti liwonetsedwe." Tsoka ilo, pakati pa oyandikana ndi oyipa, malamulo okhwimitsa nyumba, ndi ziwembu zomwe sizili zazikulu kwambiri kuposa sitampu yaposachedwa, yochepa -Awalena nthawi zambiri amakhala ngati waya wamiyala ingapo kutchingira pawindo- mmalo mwa mawilo 130 amtambo wamtali wautali timafuna kuti pakhale chingwe pakati pa nsanja ziwiri zazitali mikono 50.

Mwamwayi, pali njira yosavuta yofananira ndi tinyanga tating'onoting'ono, ndipo ndi tinyanga yogwira; komwe kwenikweni kumakhala ndi tinyanga tating'onoting'ono komanso kukweza kwambiri. Chipinda changa chomwe chakhala chikugwira ntchito bwino kwa zaka pafupifupi khumi. Imagwira ntchito yokhutiritsa.

Lingaliro la tinyanga yantchito ndi yosavuta. Popeza antenna ndi ochepa thupi, satenga mphamvu zochulukirapo ngati antenna wokulirapo, kotero timangogwiritsa ntchito chopanga cha RF kuti tipeze chiwonetsero chazomwe tikuwona kuti "kutayika." olandila ambiri adapangidwa kuti azigwira ntchito ndi nyerere ya 50-ohm.

Ma antennas ogwira ntchito amatha kupangidwira mtundu uliwonse wamafupipafupi, koma amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri kuyambira VLF (10KHz kapena choncho) mpaka 30MHz. Cholinga cha izi ndichifukwa choti tinyanga tambiri tambiri tambiri tambiri timatalikirana kwambiri. Pamaulendo apamwamba, ndikosavuta kupanga antenna yaying'ono kwambiri.

Antenna yogwira yomwe ikuwoneka pansipa (mkuyu. 1), imapereka phindu la 14-20dB pamafayilo otchuka a radio-amateur a 1-30MHz. Monga momwe mungayembekezere, yochepetsani pafupipafupi kupindula kwanu. Kupeza kwa 20dB ndizodziwika kuyambira 1-18 MHz, kutsika mpaka 14dB pa 30MHz.

Dongosolo Lapangidwe:
Chifukwa antennas omwe amafupika kwambiri kuposa 1/4 wavelength amatulutsa mphamvu yocheperako komanso yolimba kwambiri yomwe imadalira pafupipafupi yolandilidwa, palibe kuyesera komwe kunapangidwa kuti kugwirizane ndi zovuta za antenna - zingakhale zovuta komanso zokhumudwitsa kuti mufanane ndi zovuta pazaka khumi zofunda pafupipafupi. M'malo mwake, gawo lothandizira (Q1) ndi wotsatira wa JFET, yemwe kulowererapo kwake kwapamwamba kumayendetsa bwino mawonekedwe a antenna nthawi iliyonse. Ngakhale mitundu yambiri ya ma JFET angagwiritsidwe ntchito-monga MPF102, NTE451, kapena 2N4416-dziwani kuti kuyankha kokhazikika kwamasewera kumayikidwa ndi mawonekedwe a JFET amplifier.

Transistor Q2 imagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati emitter-yotsatira kuti ipereke katundu wolemetsa kwambiri wa Q1, koma koposa zonse, imapereka kuyendetsedwa kotsika kwa wamba-emitter amplifier Q3, yomwe imapereka onse phindu la ampulifiti. Chofunikira kwambiri cha Q3 ndi fT, kutsika-kotsika komwe kumakhala kotsika, komwe kuyenera kukhala kosiyanasiyana kwa 200-400 MHz. A 2N3904, kapena 2N2222 imagwira bwino ntchito Q3.

Chofunikira kwambiri pamagawo a Q3 ndi kutsika kwamagetsi kudutsa R8: Kuchuluka koponya, kumapeza phindu. Komabe, phokoso limatsika pomwe phindu la Q3 likuwonjezeka.

Transistor Q4 isintha zolowera pang'ono za Q3 kukhala zolowetsa pang'ono, mwakutero zimapereka kuyendetsa kokwanira kwa kulowetsa kwa 50-ohm kulowetsedwa.

Chithunzi Chochita cha Antenna Schematic

Mndandanda wazigawo ndi zina:

Semiconductors:
      Q1 = MPF102, JFET. (2N4416, NTE451, ECG451, etc.) Q2, Q3, Q4 = 2N3904, NPN transistor

Otsutsa:
Onse Otsutsa ndi 5%, 1/4-watt
    R1 = 1 MegOhm R5 = 10K R2, R10 = 22 ohm R6, R9 = 1K R3, R11 = 2K2 R7 = 3K3 R4 = 22K R8 = 470 ohm

Ma capacitors (adavotera 16V):
   C1, C3 = 470pF C2, C5, C6 = 0.01uF (10nF) C4 = 0.001uF (1nF) C7, C9 = 0.1uF (100nF) C8 = 22uF / 16V, electrolytic

Zida Zosiyanasiyana:
  B1 = 9-volt Alkaline batire S1 = SPST pa-off switch J1 = Jack kuti agwirizane (yanu) yolandila chingwe ANT1 = Telescoping chikwapu antenna (screw phiri), waya, ndodo yamkuwa (pafupifupi 12 ") MISC = PCB zida, zotchinga, batire batri, 9V batani chithunzithunzi, etc. 

Tinyanga tingakhale china chilichonse; waya wautali, ndodo yothira mkuwa, kapena tinyanga ya telescopic yomwe idapulumutsidwa kuchokera pa wailesi yakale. Ma telestopic m'malo opangira ma transistor ma radiyo amapezekanso kuchokera kwa ogulitsa ndi othandizira ambiri ogulitsa zamagetsi.

Ntchito yomanga:
Chowonjezera cha gawo lino chimagwiritsa ntchito bolodi yosindikiza (onani pansipa). Amplifier ikhoza kusungidwa pa board yairingirira yamafuta (vero board), koma chifukwa ilipo ena kumvetsetsa kwamapangidwe azigawo, tikukulimbikitsani kuti mupange bolodi yoyendera (PCB) yotsata zotsatira zabwino.

PCB Magawo-Magawo
Chithunzi chojambula pamalowo chikuwonetsedwa pa mkuyu. 2. Dziwani kuti ngakhale batri yoyipa (pansi) yabwezeretsedwa pa bolodi la PC, linanena bungwe-jack J1 likulumikizana ndi malo a nduna. Kulumikizana kwapakati pa bolodi la PC ndi nduna kumapangidwa kudzera pazitsulo kapena zotchinga zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kukhazikitsa bolodi la PC pamalo obisalamo. Musasinthe * m'malo mwa pulasitiki kapena zomata pulasitiki chifukwa sizingagwirizane ndi bolodi la PC, nduna, ndi J1. Ngati mungagwiritse ntchito thabwa lanyumba pulasitiki kuti mukulitse, onetsetsani kuti kulumikizana kwa J1 kwabwezeretsedwa kumapeto kwa PC-board.

Khola la telescopic limakwera pakati pa bolodi la PC. Kuchokera mbali yojambulapo ya bolodi, dutsani gawo lake loyikiralo kudzera pa bolodi la PC kenako ndikugulitsa mutu wa screw kulowera kwake. Pazowonjezera zonse komanso kutithandizira, timagwiritsa ntchito pulasitala kapena pulasitiki pakati pa antenna ndi bowo lomwe lili mu chivundikiro cha nduna momwe antenna amadutsamo. Potsina, matepi angapo apulasitiki wabwino kwambiri wokutira pachitsulo cha antenna amatha kulowa m'malo mwa rabara.

Ngati mungaganize zopanga ma antenna a waya, ikani chikhazikitso chomangira mayankho 5 Kenako, onetsetsani kuti mulumikiza waya wamtali pakati pakati pa tinthu ta tinyanga tating'ono ndi chikhomo chomangirira.

Zosintha:
Ngati mukufuna gawo lazocheperako kuposa 1-30MHz, resistor R1 ikhoza kusintha ndikuyika LC tank tank yokhazikika pakatikati pa malo omwe mukufuna. Dongosolo la LC lithandizanso kukanidwa kwa ma sign omwe muli kunja kwa chidwi chanu, koma kumbukirani kuti sizingathandize phindu la omwe akuwonjezera.

Ngati chidwi chanu ndi ma frequency otsika kwambiri (VLF), kuyankha kotsika kwa ma amplifier kumatha kuthandizidwa ndikuwonjezera phindu la capacitors C1 ndi C3. (Muyenera kuyesa zotsatirazi.)
Ngakhale batire ya 9-volt ndi komwe imalimbikitsa magetsi, makulitsidwe amayenera kugwira ntchito bwino pogwiritsa ntchito ma volts a 6-15. Mkati mwa nduna yoyeserera, pogwiritsa ntchito batri ya 9-volt ngati magetsi, akuwonetsedwa mkuyu. 3.

Magawo-Magawo
Kusaka zolakwika:
Ma voluge yamagetsi yamagetsi olimbitsa thupi a 9-volt akuwonetsedwa mch chithunzi cha 1. Ngati ma voliyumu omwe ali mgawo lanu amasiyana 20% kuchokera kwa omwe ali pachiwonetserocho, yesani kusintha mfundo zotsutsana nazo kuti mumtunduwo ukhale woyenera. Mwachitsanzo, ngati mphamvu yamagetsi yatsika pamtunda wa R8 pokhapokha 0.3 volt, muyenera kuchepetsa mtengo wa R4 (mtengo wofunikira uli ndi inu kuti mufufuze) kuti muwonjezere magetsi oyambira a Q3 ndi osonkhetsa pakalipano.

Ma voltant ovuta kwambiri ndi omwe amadutsa R3 ndi R8. Magwiridwe amayenera kukhala abwino ngati ali pafupi ndi malingaliro omwe awonetsedwa pa chithunzi chojambula.

Popeza ndizosatheka kuyeza voliyumu kuchokera pachipata kupita ku gwero (VGS) la FET, mutha kuyeza voliyumu yomwe ilipo kudutsa R3, chifukwa ndi yofanana ndi VGS. Sinthani mtengo wa R3 molingana, ngati voliyumu ilibe mkati mwa ma volts a 0.8-1.2.

zofooka:
Kugwiritsa ntchito matalikidwe awa pamwambapa 30 MHz sikulimbikitsidwa chifukwa chakuchepa kofulumira. Ngakhale kugwira ntchito pamtunda kwa 30 MHz kungatheke pogwiritsa ntchito mabatani osungidwa m'malo mwa katundu wotsala, kusintha kumeneko sikungathe kufalikira pamutuwu.

Musamale mukamayang'anira FET (Q1). Chikhulupiriro chofala ndichakuti ma FET ndi zida za CMOS ndizotetezeka pakuwonongeka kokhazikika pambuyo poyikiratu, kapena atakwezedwa pa bolodi la PC. Ngakhale ndizowona kuti amatetezedwa bwino ku magetsi osasunthika akakhazikitsidwa mudera, amatha kuwonongeka ndi static; chifukwa chake musakhudze tulo musanadzigulitse pansi mwa kukhudza chinthu chachitsulo.

Copyright ndi Credits:
Source: "RE Experimenters Handbook", 1990. Copyright © Rodney A.Kreuter, Tony van Roon, Magazini ya Radio Electronics, ndi Gernsback Pub, Inc. 1990. Wolemba ndi chilolezo cholembedwa. (Gernsback Publishing ndi Radio Electronics salinso mu bizinesi). Kusintha kwa zolembedwa ndi kusintha, zojambula zonse, PCB / Masanjidwe opangidwa ndi Tony van Roon. Kuyika kutumiza kapena kujambula zithunzi mwanjira iliyonse kapena mtundu uliwonse wa ntchitoyi ndi koletsedwa mwachindunji ndi malamulo amtundu wapadziko lonse.